Cultivable Land

Forest land, groves, land prepared for sugar-cane furrows, waste-lands like pastures and grazing land often classified as unculturable due to excess of sand or reh or on account of ravine-scouring or overgrowth of dhak constitutes cultivable land in the district. The area of cultivable land in the district in 1990-91 was 141624 hectares. According to the 1990-91 agricultural survey, the total number of active cultivable lands remained to be 151838. Most of the cultivables are small. The count of cultivables less than 0.5 hectares remained to be 47.65%, and between 0.5 & 1.0 hectares the culivables remained to be 23.76%, and 1.0 to 2.0, it were 17.33%, and 2.0 to 4.0 hectare cultivable land's percentage was 8.54%, and more than 4.0 it were 2.72%.

Multiple Cropping and Rotation of Crops

The practice of growing more than one crop simultaneously in a single field in a single season gives additional harvest. Thus, this practice increases the over all yield and ensures maximum use of the soil and nutrients. If there is danger of loss to any crop due to adverse weather conditions or diseases, there are some better chances for the other crop in the field if the system of multiple cropping is adopted, arhar is almost always sown with bajra, urd or moong, jowar, ground nut, linseed wheat with gram, pea or mustard, barley with gram or peas or both. Potato is generally mixed with methi or onion. The importance of rotation of crops has been fully realised by the farmers of the district. Scientific rotation of crops helps the farmers to maintain the fertility of the fields by growing exhaustive crops in rotation with restorative crops. As such this practice is generally prevalent through out the whole cultivated area of the district and it has its root in the minds of every cultivator. A particular crop sown in one season restricts the cultivator to sow the other crop in the next season, which is most beneficial for the field and by this practice the turnout also is enhanced to some extent. The practice of green-manuring during kharif is also popular before sowing wheat in Rabi.

The popular rotations followed in the district are Paddy Wheat, Paddy Gram, Paddy Peas, Paddy Berseem, Maize Wheat, Maize Potato-wheat, Bajra Wheat or Peas or Gram or Peas and Gram, on account of being leguminous crops, have restorative qualities, Cultivation of these crops in rotation with exhaustive crops like paddy and bajra helps to maintain the fertility of the fields. The old practice of growing wheat after a fallow period is being replaced by growing wheat after green manuring in Rabi. This practice has been responsible for increasing the yield of wheat by more than one and a half quintals per ha. The two and three years rotation is also adopted in the district and is as follows :

First Year Second Year Third Year
                  Bajra &  Pea  Green manuring & Wheat -
                   Jowar & Arhar Cotton&  Peas -
Kharif  Sugar-cane  Green manuring   Cotton
Rabi    Sugar-cane   Wheat  Preparation for Sugar-cane

Sugar-cane is generally sown in three years rotation. The areas, near the help of organic manures and fertilizer. In such areas three to four crops in a year are taken such as maize, early potato, late potato and Sitaphal. In these areas the fertility of the fields is maintained by full manuring.

Means of Irrigation

Auraiya is an agriculture land. The main occupation in the district is agriculture. Thus, the means of irrigation keeps the important role on such lands. To become independent in the production of cereals it is neccessary to provide the sufficient means of irrigation in the cultivable lands so that the crops giving more production could be harvested by increasing the agriculture density.

In earlier times the district was almost wholly dependent on wells and, to a small extent, on tanks. The well-irrigation appears to have been largely replaced by canals. The chief sources of irrigation are wells, tanks.



The methods of cultivation in this district are generally the same as those found elsewhere in the Doab. The application of manure and the use of water for irrigation are extensively resorted to. There are the usual harvests known as the Kharif or autumn, the Rabi or spring and Zaid or extra harvest. The Kharif crops are shown in Ashadha- Sravana and reaped in Kuar-Kartika after the cessation of rains usually well before the preparation of fields for the Rabi sowings which begin in October-November i.e. Kartika and Agrahanya and are harvested in March-April and even May. The Zaid consists of vegetables and low grade cereals sown in March or April and reaped before June. The system of double cropping is followed to a considerable extent in the district owning to the facilities for irrigation. The figures of dofasli area for the different tahsils do not exhibit any great variations, but the proportions are highest in Bidhuna and Bharthana and the proportion is lowest in Auraiya.

The Uttar Pradesh Petrochemical Complex(UPPC) of Gas Authority of India Limited is located at Pata, Distt. Auraiya, U.P. It was set up in accordance with GAILís mission to maximise the value addition from each fraction of Natural Gas.

Principal Crops

Kharif Crops

The chief Kharif crops are the millets, known as Bajra and Jowar, paddy and maize. These are sown either alone or in combination with Arhar. Bajra is chiefly grown in light and sandy soil. Between 1903 and 1907 Bajra alone or in combination covered 42.511 ha. or 28.47 per cent of the kharif. In the subsequent year its cultivation in the district increased by nearly 12,900ha. In 1380 Fasli year that is 1973-74 the bajra covered an area of 77.673 ha. Jowar is generally grown in the stiffer and better soils but like bajra it is usually mixed with arhar, the proportion grown alone being only 5per cent. Both Bajra and Jowar are usually sown in June on unirrigated land,the fields being previously prepared by ploughing. They are reaped in November. A considerable amount of Jowar is grown only for fodder especially in Etawah and Bharthana tahsils. Another important Kharif crop is rice. There has been an enormous increase in the extent of rice cultivation during the last hundred years. Several local varieties of rice are grown. In 1973-74 (1380 Fasli year) the area covered by paddy was 2,59,506 ha. The only other Kharif crop that is of any importance is maize which during the period between 1903 and 1907 covered on the average 52.321 acres or 14.18 per cent of the area cultivated in the kharif. The only tahsil however, where it is extensively planted is Bidhuna. Maize is usually sown in the best gauhani dumat soil, close to the village site, where the fields yield two crops a year. The land is generally well manured and the crops are sown asearly as possible in Asharh. During the ensuing month the field is carefully weeded and by the middle of Bhadon the plants usually attain a height of four feet and the ears begin to show. Among the Kharif cereals small pulses known as Moth, Urd and Moong, the small millet Mandua, and Hemp or Sanai were largely grown in the past, but new incentives in the field of agriculture have lowered their popularity and more valuable crops like paddy, maize and sugar-cane are gradually replacing them. In 1997-98 the production of pulses was 21977 metric tonnes and by sugar-cane was 80647 Metric tonnes.

Rabi Crops

Wheat heads the list of Rabi cereals in the district in point of area, which in 1973-74 constituted more than half of the total Rabi sowing. Wheat is grown pure as well as mixed with crops like barley and gram. Wheat when mixed with gram is known as gochani and with barley as gujai. The area under pure wheat has no doubt increased during recent years, but the old practice or sowing mixed crops, a characteristic feature of the district has not disappeared altogether. The wheat crop requires a good soil, and an assured supply of water besides manure. In 1380 Fasli year wheat covered an area of 95,860 hact.

Barley alone or in combination with gram forming the mixed called bejhar to which peas are generally added was the favourite rabi staple in the past, in the area sown with it is due to their replacement with wheat and its combination. Barley flourishes even in soils and in tracts which are not suited to wheat cultivation for lack of irrigation facilities.

Gram is, on the whole, little irrigated and it resists drought well, and for this reason it is acceptable to the inhabitants of the par. It can be grown on inferior soils. It needs only two ploughings and does not usually require manure. The only other Rabi staple which needs mention is peas.

Cash Crops

Sugar-cane, oil seeds like ground-nut, linseed and rape-seed, vegetables and fruits, hemps, tobacco, sweet potato, condiments and spices are the main non-food crops of the district. Vegetables though they occupy a small area in the district specially around the towns and large villages, constitute valuable crops. The kharif vegetables comprise Lady-fingers, Gourds, Spinach, Brinjal etc., and those of Rabi comprise Cauliflowers, Cabbage, Tomatoes, Potatoes, Rradishes, Brinjal and T turnip etc.

In the past indigo was also grown in the district, but totally disappeared in time with the coming in of synthetic dyes. In the past, opium was an important non-food crop.

Poppy can only be grown on the best irrigated and manured gauhan land, and calls for a considerable amount of skill and capital.

Soil Nutrients

Cattle dung, farm refuse and stable little are the common manures used by the farmers. After soil test in district Etawah it has been realised that the soils are generally deficient in Nitrogen, Phosphate and Pottasium in different degree, which is removed by the use of chemical fertilizers, green manure and compost. The green manure crops like sanai, dhaincha and moong provide natural nitrogenerus ingredients to the soil and increase its fertility. The chemical fertilizers, though costly, have also become popular among the cultivators. Among chemical fertilizers used by the farmers of the district are the urea, amonium sulphate, calcium, amonium nitrate, diamonium phosphate, amonium phosphate, super phosphate and N.P.K. The chemical fertilizers are obtained through agriculture and co-operative seed stores and agents of Agro Industrial Corporation besides individual dealers